Develop innovative applications of neuromodulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as a safe and effective way to modulate “circuitopathies” through mechanisms that remain largely unknown but likely include changes in gene expression in addition to regulating neuronal activity. Furthermore, DBS is a titratable and reversible therapeutic modality. We are currently testing the hypothesis that it is possible to combine DBS technology with gene therapy to create a novel and clinically useful method of spatio-temporal control of gene expression in the brain. Our strategy presents the intriguing possibility that DBS could be repurposed as a completely novel “electroceutical” therapeutic modality. This work is highly collaborative through CRANIA ( and involves scientists and clinicians at the Krembil Research Institute and KITE.